"Christians and the Internet" newsletter
CATI, Vol. 1, No. 35:  September 1, 2000.
_______________________________________________________________
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. SOME GOOD COMICS ON THE WEB: WHERE TO FIND THEM
2. MY NAPARC-PLUS WEB DIRECTORY, PART SIX: PCA CHURCHES, G-M
3. SOME ADDITIONAL PCA CONGREGATION WEB SITES, A-F
4. SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION FOR THIS NEWSLETTER
_______________________________________________________________
Unless otherwise indicated, all material in this newsletter is
Copyright (C) 2000 by Barry Traver, All Rights Reserved.  For
permission to reproduce material from this newsletter, contact
Barry Traver at cati@traver.org.  Permission is hereby granted,
however, to pass along this issue to others, provided that (1)
no changes are made and (2) it is passed along in its entirety.
To subscribe, write to cati@traver.org, including "Subscribe to
CATI" in the Subject line and including in the body your real
name and the email address to which you wish CATI sent.
_______________________________________________________________
1. SOME GOOD COMICS ON THE WEB: WHERE TO FIND THEM
First, let's define "comics" for the purposes of this article.
I'm not talking about stand-up comics (whose comedy is often
questionable or actually offensive in nature) or about comic
books (many of which today have little to do with comedy at
all), but about the generally wholesome comics published in
most daily newspapers.
You don't, however, have to buy a newspaper to read the comics
(and some of the time, the comic section may be the only thing
worth reading in the paper!).  The good news is that you can
probably enjoy your favorites online, and where to find them
is what this article is all about.
Here's some terminology that we'll mostly ignore.  A single
picture is called a panel, and a comic strip is made up of
several panels.  So -- technically speaking -- Marmaduke is an
example of a comic panel, while Garfield is an example of a
comic strip.  (See links below).
Following are some specific comics that you can enjoy online
(although in some cases you may need to wait a week or two
for the latest comics to appear on the Web):
Animal Crackers
  http://www.comicspage.com/animal/index.html
Archie
  http://www.creators.com/comics/arc/
B.C.
  http://www.creators.com/comics/bc/
Blondie [revised link]
  http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/blondie/about.htm
Boner's Ark [no longer available]
Calvin and Hobbes
  http://www.calvinandhobbes.com/
Cathy
  http://comics.com/universal/cathy/ab.html
Dennis the Menace [revised link]
  http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/dennis/about.htm
Dilbert
  http://www.unitedmedia.com/comics/dilbert/
Family Circus [revised link]
  http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/familyc/about.htm
For Heaven's Sake
  http://www.creators.com/comics/hev/
FoxTrot
  http://www.foxtrot.com/
Garfield
  http://comics.com/universal/garfield/ab.html
Heathcliff
  http://www.creators.com/comics/heath/
Henry [revised link]
  http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/henry/about.htm
Hi and Lois [revised link]
  http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/hi_lois/about.htm
Jump Start
  http://comics.com/comics/jumpstart/ab.html
Marmaduke
  http://www.unitedmedia.com/comics/marmaduke/
The Middletons
  http://www.comicspage.com/middletons/index.html
Miss Peach
  http://www.creators.com/comics/msp/
Peanuts: The Official Peanuts Website
Snoopy, Charlie Brown, and friends.
  http://www.peanuts.com/
Rugrats
  http://www.creators.com/comics/rug/
Tiger [revised link]
  http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/tiger/about.htm
The Wizard of Id
  http://www.creators.com/comics/wiz/
Ziggy
  http://www.uexpress.com/ups/comics/zi/index.html
The preceding list is not complete, of course, although it may
include many of the comic strips in which CATI readers may be
interested.  Here, however, are some pages that link to comic
strips additional to those already mentioned (but it should be
noted that -- because of the inclusive nature of the following
pages -- some of the strips may not be as "family-friendly" as
those I've already mentioned and some may not even be "comic"
at all):
ComicPage.com (Tribune Media Services)
Links to Animal Crackers, Annie, Bottom Liners, Bound &
Gagged, Brenda Starr, Broom-Hilda, Charlie, Compu-toon, Dick
Tracy, Doodles, Dunagin's People, Fred Basset, Gasoline Alley,
Gil Thorp, Helen Sweetheart of the Internet, Herb & Jamaal,
Lola, The Middletons, Mixed Media, Mother Goose & Grimm, Shoe,
Pluggers, SuperZeros, That's Jake, and Yak's Corner.
  http://www.comicspage.com/
Comics.com
Links to Adam, Alley Oop, Andy Capp, Arlo & Janis, Ask Shagg,
B.C., Ballard Street, Betty, Big Nate, Bizarro, Boondocks,
The Born Loser, The Buckets, Bull$ 'N' Bear$, Cathy, Cheap
Thrills, Citizen Dog, Close To Home, Committed, Cornered,
Crabby Road, Crankshaft, Dilbert, Doonesbury, Drabble, The
Duplex, Editorial Cartoons, Fat Cats, The Fifth Wave, Flight
Deck, For Better or For Worse, For Heaven's Sake, FoxTrot,
Frank & Ernest, The Fusco Brothers, Garfield, Geech, Get
Fuzzy, Grand Avenue, Grandfather Clause, The Grizzwells,
Heart of the City, Heathcliff, Herman, In the Bleachers, Jump
Start, Katie's Wee Do Puzzles, Kit 'N' Carlisle, Liberty
Meadows, L'il Abner, Luann, Lupo Alberto, Marmaduke, Meatloaf
Night, Meg!, Miss Peach, Mister Boffo, Momma, Motley, Nancy,
Non Sequitur, Over the Hedge, Offsides, One Big Happy, 
Overboard, PC and Pixel, Peanuts, Penmen, Pickels, Raising
Duncan, Randolph Itch 2 a.m., Raw Material, Real Life
Adventures, Reality Check, Red & Rover, Ripley's Believe It
or Not!, Robotman, Rose Is Rose, Rubes, Rugrats, Second
Chances, Soup to Nutz, Speed Bump, Stockcar Toons, Stone
Soup, Strange Brew, Tank McNamara, Tarzan, Teenage Mutant
Ninja Turtles, That's Life, Tom The Dancing Bug, Top of the
World!, Trevor, Warped, Wee Pals, The Wizard of Id, Ziggy,
and Zorro.
  http://comics.com/
Creators.com
Links to Agnes, Andy Capp, Archie, Ask Shagg, Ballard Street,
B.C., Flight Deck, For Heaven's Sake, Grandfather Clause,
Heathcliff, Katie's Wee Do Puzzles, Liberty Meadows, Mr. Lowe,
Miss Peach, Momma, One Big Happy, Penmen, Raw Material, Rubes,
Rugrats, Speed Bump, Strange Brew, Teenage Mutant Ninja
Turtles, Wee Pals, The Wizard of Id, and Zorro.
  http://www.creators.com/
Ctoons
Links to 9 Chickweed Lane, A Bit Off, Against the Grain, Andy
Capp, Animal Crackers, Annie, Ask Shagg, B.C., Bad Company,
Badlands, Ballard Street, Bound and Gagged, Brenda Starr,
Broom-Hilda, Cartoons of the Day, Cats With Hands, Cran and
Lerma, Dick Tracy, Doctor Cyborg, Flight Deck, Fred Basset,
Gasoline Alley, Grandfather Clause, Herb & Jamaal, Kudzu,
Liberty Meadows, Lola, Loose Parts, Meehan Streak, Mixed
Media, Momma, Mother Goose and Grimm, Mr. Lowe, Mulch, Night
Lights and Pillow Fights, Off The Mark, One Big Happy, PC and
Pixel, Pluggers, Pop Culture, Quigmans, Reynolds Unwrapped,
Rubes, Rugrats, Shoe, Speed Bump, Spooner, Squinkers, Strange
Brew, Sylvia, Thatch, Trindle and Higgins, Tumbleweeds, Wally
Gilmore, The Wizard of Id, and Zorro. 
  http://mytoons.ctoons.com/
King Features Comics
Links to The Amazing Spider-Man, Apartment 3-G, Baby Blues,
Barney Google and Snuffy Smith, Beetle Bailey, The Better
Half, Between Friends, Blondie, Bobo's Progress, Boner's Ark,
Bringing Up Father, Buckles, Claire, Crock, Curtis, Dennis
The Menace, Dinette Set, The Family Circus, Flash Gordon, 
Funky Winkerbean, Grin and Bear It, Hagar the Horrible, Hazel,
Henry, Hi and Lois, Horrorscope, I Need Help, Judge Parker,
The Katzenjammer Kids, The Lockhorns, Mallard Fillmore,
Mandrake the Magician, Mark Trail, Marvin, Mary Worth, Moose
Miller, Mutts, The New Breed, The Norm, On the Fastrack,
Piranha Club, The Phantom, Popeye, Pops Place, Prince Valiant, 
Ralph, Redeye, Rex Morgan, M.D., Rhymes with Orange, Safe
Havens, Sally Forth, Sam & Silo, Sherman's Lagoon, Six Chix,
Slylock Fox and Comics For Kids, Steve Roper and Mike Nomad,
They'll Do It Every Time, Tiger, Trudy, Tumbleweeds, Willy 'n
Ethel, Zippy the Pinhead, and Zits.
  http://www.kingfeatures.com/comics/
MSNBC: Comics and Games
Links to Adam, Bizarro, Citizen Dog, Doonesbury, The Duplex,
FoxTrot, The Fusco Brothers, Second Chances, Tank McNamara,
and Tom the Dancing Bug.
  http://www.msnbc.com/comics/default.asp
Toonville
Links to Baby Blues, Badlands, Cartoon Web, Curtis, Drawing
Lessons, The Family Circus, Frank & Ernest, Funky Winkerbean,
Heathcliff, Hi & Lois, Hobnob Inn, Jane's World, Jeff
MacNelly, Kal, Kevin & Kell, Magazine Gag Cartoons, Mama's
Boyz, Mary Worth, Mostly Business, Mother Goose & Grimm,
Mudpie, The Norm, Off The Mark, One Big Happy, Pop Culture,
Pure Baloney, Rhymes With Orange, The Royals, Sally Forth,
Screams, Sherman's Lagoon, Shoe, Sports Toons, Toy Trunk
Railroad, Wee Pals, Wolvertoons, and Zits.
  http://www.toonville.com/features.asp
Universal Press Syndicate: Comics
Links to Adam@home, Baldo, The Big Picture, Bizarro,
Boondocks, Calvin and Hobbes, Cathy, Citizen Dog, Close to
Home, Cornered, Crabby Road, Crankshaft, Doonesbury, The
Duplex, The Fifth Wave, FoxTrot, The Fusco Brothers,
Garfield, Heart of the City, In the Bleachers, Mister Boffo,
Non Sequitur, Overboard, Real Life Adventures, Second
Chances, Stone Soup, Tank McNamara, Tom the Dancing Bug, and
Ziggy.
  http://www.uexpress.com/ups/comics/
As I said, some of the strips to which there are links on the
pages just mentioned are not really "comic," but rather tell
a story (adventure, romance, etc.)  Some examples are The
Amazing Spiderman, Annie, Brenda Starr, Dick Tracy, Flash
Gordon, L'il Abner, Mandrake the Magician, Mark Trail, Mary
Worth, The Phantom, Prince Valiant, and Rex Morgan, M.D.
You can feel free to ignore these strips and any others that
may be on the pages just mentioned.  Unlike the sites that I
mentioned earlier for individual comics, these later sites I
mention because they may happen to include an individual comic
you may like that I did not mention specifically earlier.
In other words, do not take the mention of these later sites
as any sort of endorsement or recommendation of all the comics
that are mentioned on them:  they are simply miscellaneous
collections that may perhaps include some comics in which you
may be interested.
Finally, what about "Christian comics"?  Well, such exist, but
I've not been much impressed by most that I've seen.  Some use
the comic strip format to present the gospel, but the quality
(or theology) of presentation may be somewhat lacking.  (There
must be exceptions out there: please let me know if you have
found any that you recommend!)  At any rate, our emphasis here
is on comics that are comic (perhaps in a future issue we will
deal with evangelistic or educational Christian comic strips),
so here are a few comic Christian comics for you to try out:
ChristianCartoons.com
"Daily updated Christian cartoons," some of which are better
than others.
  http://www.christiancartoons.com/
Church of the Covered Dish
These comics are done by a Southern Baptist pastor with over
20 years of pastoral experience.
  http://www.botcw.com/thom/index.htm
Reverend Fun
This Christian comic series is a popular feature of the Gospel
Communications Network.
  www.reverendfun.com
    OR
  http://www.gospelcom.net/rev-fun/
Enjoy!
_______________________________________________________________
2. MY NAPARC-PLUS WEB DIRECTORY, PART SIX: PCA CHURCHES, G-M
(continued from previous issue)
I'm in the process of putting together a directory of churches
in conservative Reformed denominations (primarily those in
NAPARC) that have Web pages.  To addition to the six NAPARC
denominations, I also intend to include in my own directory
congregations that belong to the United Reformed Churches of
North America, a denomination which holds similar convictions.
The sixth installment to the Web directory of churches is the
second part of a list of congregations in the Presbyterian
Church in America who are on the Internet.  (Please notify me
of any errors that need to be corrected or additions that
should be made to the list.  Thanks!)
Here's the denominational home page for the PCA:
Presbyterian Church in America
  http://www.pcanet.org/
Here's where you'll find a directory of congregations in the
PCA:
Presbyterian Church in America: Church Directory
  http://216.5.214.50/directory.asp
Some PCA congregations do not yet have a Web page, but here
are some I know of that do (G-M, by state):
UNITED STATES
GEORGIA
Atlanta
ChristChurch Presbyterian, Atlanta
Pastor: Rev. J. Al LaCour, III
  http://www.ccpnet.org/
Cumming
New Hope Presbyterian Church, Cumming
Pastor: Rev. T. Jeffery Taylor
  http://www.nhpc.net/
Duluth
Old Peachtree Presbyterian Church, Duluth
Pastor: Rev. Alan H. Johnson
  http://personal.atl.bellsouth.net/~oppca/
Perimeter Church, Duluth
Pastor: Rev. Randall P. Pope
  http://Perimeter.org/
Fayetteville
Covenant Presbyterian Church, Fayetteville
Pastor: Rev. Dale B. Welden
  http://www.covenantpres.net/
Forsyth
Dayspring Presbyterian Church, Forsyth
Pastor: Rev. David T. King
  http://www.dayspringpca.org/
Macon
First Presbyterian Church, Macon
Pastor: Rev. George W. Miller, Jr.
  http://www.first-pca-macon.org/
Grace Presbyterian Mission, Macon
Pastor: Rev. Robert F. Veazey
  http://www.GraceChurchMacon.com/
Marietta
Hope Presbyterian Church, Marietta
Pastor: Rev. John S. Ragland
  http://hopepca.org/
Newnan
Christ Church Newnan, Newnan
Pastor: Rev. Robert H. Orner
  http://www.christchurchnewnan.org/
Savannah
Grace Church of the Islands, Savannah
Pastor: Rev. Joseph Martin Fields
  http://www.gracechurchislands.org/
Kirk O' the Isles Presbyterian Church, Savannah
Pastor: Dr. Michael Anthony Milton
  http://www.kirkpca.org/
Snellville
Chapel Woods Presbyterian Church, Snellville
Pastor: Rev. Harry S. Cooksey
  http://www.chapelwoods.org/
Ingleside Presbyterian Church, Snellville
Pastor: Rev. William M. Bratley
  http://www.inglesidepca.org/
Stockbridge
The Rock Presbyterian Church, Stockbridge
Pastor: Rev. Mark A. Rowden
  http://www.mindspring.com/~revrowdy/index.html
Watkinsville
Christ Church PCA, Watkinsville
Pastor: Rev. Glen Edward Hague
  http://www.itown.com/athens/ccpca/
Faith Presbyterian Church, Watkinsville
Pastor: Rev. Robert F. McAndrew, Jr.
  http://www.athens.net/~faithpca/
HAWAII
Mililani
Trinity Church Leeward, Mililani
Pastor: Rev. Peter W. Anderson
  http://www.pixi.com/~tcl/
IDAHO
Athol
Living Word Presbyterian Church, Athol
Pastor: Rev. John Michael Kohl
  http://www.nidlink.com/~livingword/
ILLINOIS
Addison
Living Waters Presbyterian Church, Addison
Pastor: Rev. Danny E. Arciaga
  http://www.churchserve.com/host/il/lwpc/
Chicago
Covenant Presbyterian Church, Chicago
Pastor: Rev. David C. Williams
  http://www.covenant-chicago.org/
Edwardsville
Center Grove Presbyterian Church, Edwardsville
Pastor: Rev. Anthony James Casoria
  http://www.centergrove.org/
Godfrey
Westminster Presbyterian Church, Godfrey
Pastor: Rev. Alan R. Mallory
  http://www.wpcgodfrey.org/
Naperville
Naperville Presbyterian Church, Naperville
Pastor: Rev. Michael R. Marcey
  http://www.npchurch.org/
Peoria
First Presbyterian Church of Pottstown, Peoria
Pastor: Rev. Mark J. Henninger
  http://jcalvin.bradley.edu/church/
Roselle
Spring Valley Presbyterian Church, Roselle
Pastor: Rev. Paul Z. Winters
  http://www.interopolis.com/svpc/
West Dundee
Tyler Creek Church, West Dundee
Pastor: Rev. Robert M. Allums
  http://www.tylercreek.org/
INDIANA
Indianapolis
Grace Presbyterian Church, Indianapolis
Pastor: Rev. David G. McKay
  http://www.gracepca.org/
KANSAS
Overland Park
Oak Hills Presbyterian Church, Overland Park
Pastor: Rev. Christopher Scott Sauls
  http://oakhillspca.wwit.com/
Redeemer Presbyterian Church, Overland Park
Pastor: Rev. Mark Merritt
  http://www.Redeemer-PCA.org/
West Hills Community Church, Overland Park
  http://www.westhills.org/
Wichita
Evangel Presbyterian Church, Wichita
Pastor: Rev. Donald W. Rackley
  http://www.evangelpca.org/
KENTUCKY
Louisville
Community Presbyterian Church, Louisville
Pastor: Rev. David R. Dively
  http://www.communitypca.org/
Richmond
Trinity Presbyterian Church, Richmond
Pastor: Rev. F. Curt Gardner
  http://www.wildcatblue.com/users/trinity/
LOUISIANA
Lafayette
Acadiana Presbyterian Church, Lafayette
Pastor: Rev. Marcus P. Rench
  http://AcadianaPca.com/
Lake Charles
Bethel Presbyterian Church, Lake Charles
Pastor: Rev. James A. Jones, Jr.
  http://www.bethelpca.org/
Metairie
Grace Presbyterian Church, Metairie
Pastor: Rev. Richard H. Davies
  http://community.nola.com/cc/gracepresbyterian/
MARYLAND
Annapolis
Evangelical Presbyterian Church, Annapolis
Pastor: Rev. G. Dale Linder
  http://www.epannapolis.org/
Baltimore
Faith Christian Fellowship Church, Baltimore
Pastor: Rev. Craig W. Garriott
  http://www.maranatha.net/fcfchurch/
Inverness Presbyterian Church, Baltimore
Pastor: Rev. Dr. Jonathan N. Gerstner
  http://members.aol.com/ihsipc/
California
Cornerstone Presbyterian Church, California
Pastor: Rev. Terry R. Baxley
  http://www.cornerstonepca.org/
Edgewater
Grace Evangelical Presbyterian Church, Edgewater
Pastor: Rev. Daniel Joseph Smith
  http://www.fron-tech.com/grace/
Glen Burnie
Glen Burnie Evangelical Presbyterian Church, 
Interim Pastor: Rev. Larry Wanaselja
  http://www.forministry.com/21061gbepc
Hyattsville
Wallace Presbyterian Church, Hyattsville
Pastor: Rev. Stephen M. Clark, Ph.D.
  http://www.wallacepca.org/
Lutherville
Valley Presbyterian Church, Lutherville
Pastor: Rev. W. Thompson Osterhaus
  http://www.homestead.com/valleypca/index~ns4.html
Marriottsville
Chapelgate Presbyterian Church, Marriottsville
Pastor: Rev. Ronald E. Steel
  http://www.chapelgate.org/
Mount Airy
Mount Airy Presbyterian Church, Mount Airy
Pastor: Rev. David W. Durant
  http://www.mtairypca.org/
Pasadena
Severna Park Evangelical Presbyterian Church, Pasadena
Pastor: Rev. Glenn R. Parkinson
  http://www.severnapark.com/~spep/
Salisbury
Christ's Community Church, Salisbury
Pastor: Rev. Jason B. Shelton
  http://www.ccpc.addr.com/
Timonium
Calvary Presbyterian Church (Korean)
Pastor: Rev. James Jinjun Ro
  http://www.calvarypca.org/
Timonium Presbyterian Church, Timonium
  http://www.timpca.org/
MASSACHUSETTS
Cambridge
Christ The King Presbyterian Church, Cambridge
Pastor: Rev. Richard E. Downs, Jr.
  http://www.ctkboston.org/
West Springfield
West Springfield Covenant Comm. Church, West Springfield
Pastor: Rev. Alfred E. LaValley
  http://www.wscccpca.org/
MINNESOTA
Minnetonka
Good Shepherd Presbyterian Church, Minnetonka
Pastor: Rev. Ian Hewitson
  http://www.gspcpca.org/
MISSISSIPPI
Jackson
First Presbyterian Church, Jackson
Pastor: Rev. J. Ligon Duncan, III
  http://www.fpcjackson.org/
Olive Branch
Christ Presbyterian Church, Olive Branch
Pastor: Rev. Richard A. Rieves
  http://www.cpc.ms/
MISSOURI
Chesterfield
Chesterfield Presbyterian Church, Chesterfield
Pastor: Rev. Hugh M. Barlett
  http://www.chespres.org/
St. Louis
Covenant Presbyterian Church, St. Louis
Pastor: Rev. George W. Robertson
  http://www.covenantstlouis.org/
Memorial Presbyterian Church, St. Louis
Pastor: Rev. George M. Stulac
  http://www.memorialpca.org/
New City Fellowship, St. Louis
Pastor: Rev. Barry Henning
  http://NewCityFellowship.org/
Twin Oaks
Twin Oaks Presbyterian Church, Twin Oaks
Pastor: Rev. Rodney D. Stortz
  http://www.twinoakschurch.org/
(to be continued...)
_______________________________________________________________
3. SOME ADDITIONAL PCA CONGREGATION WEB SITES, A-F
The following CATI article included a list of congregations in
the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA), A-F (by state), that
have Web pages:
My NAPARC-Plus Web Directory, Part Five: PCA Churches, A-F
  http://www.traver.org/cati/archives/cati34.htm#2
Here are five additional Web sites not included in that list:
UNITED STATES
CALIFORNIA
Bakersfield
Covenant Presbyterian Church, Bakersfield
Pastor: Rev. Doug Van Der Pol
  http://www.geocities.com/purifiedheart/Page_1/CPCA.htm
COLORADO
Parker
Redeemer Presbyterian Church, Parker
Pastor: Rev. Steve Reese
  http://www.redeemer.to/
DELAWARE
Dover
Grace Presbyterian Church, Dover
Pastor: Rev. Jonathan P. Seda
  http://www.gpcdover.org/
FLORIDA
Jacksonville
Orgega Presbyterian Church, Jacksonville
Pastor: Rev. David L. Burke
  http://www.ortegapres.org/
Sebring
Covenant Presbyterian Church, Sebring
Pastor: Rev. W. Darrell Arnold
  http://covpressebring.virtualave.net/
If you know of any other additions or changes that should be
made to any of the lists published thus far in CATI, please
send a note to me at cati@traver.org.  Thanks!
________________________________________________________________
4. SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION FOR THIS NEWSLETTER 
This is the thirty-fifth issue of a free newsletter devoted
to "Christians And The Internet" ("CATI," pronounced "Katy,"
but spelled with a "C" and an "I" for "Christians" and the
"Internet").
To subscribe, write to cati@traver.org, including "Subscribe to
CATI" in the Subject line and including in the body your real
name and the email address to which you wish CATI sent.
Past issues:  you'll find archives of past issues of CATI
available online at http://traver.org/cati/.  ("It's not a
pretty site," but hopefully it may be a useful one.)
________________________________________________________________
Unless otherwise indicated, all material in this newsletter is
Copyright (C) 2000 by Barry Traver, All Rights Reserved.  For
permission to reproduce material from this newsletter, contact
Barry Traver at cati@traver.org.  Permission is hereby granted,
however, to pass along this issue to others, provided that (1)
no changes are made and (2) it is passed along in its entirety.